1 TRACK TAMAÑO
A Hint for racing consists of two parallel lines and two equal radios curves united alternatively among themselves forming a ring closed. The race will be taking the kerb interior of the track on the left. The length of the perimeter interior of the track and its width (number of streets) will be according to the availability of space and economic means, as well as the category of competitions. In these Tracks can develop speed races (smooth, with relay fences and) and substance (relay 1000).
An athletics track, apt to develop therein careers included in international competitions, you must have 400 m string. Cannot take less for it to develop these competitions, nor mas, so that they can be recognized the World Record or continental obtained in this Track. Any of these races in which has achieved a record, should have its “ starting line ” in any part of the perimeter of the track and never outside it.
The track apt to develop national competitions must have a minimum of six streets (7.32 m wide), while for international competitions should have eight streets (9.76 m wide). if the track has more than eight streets, may not be recognized World Records or continental obtained in corridors above the eighth.
The perimeter of a hint of a single radio, consists of two perimeter semicircles of equal length defined by its radio and the length of the two lines that unite them. The measurement of the perimeter of the track is performed on an imaginary line located 30 cm in the face outside of the kerb, therefore is thus defined the track in function of the semicircles radius: 400 = 2Π (R + 0.30) + 2 L line,
form that the relationship between the two (length of the straights and radio) is:
L line = 200 - Π (R + 0.30) R: radius of the curve
The IAAF (International Association of Athletics Federations) recommends that all the tracks of competition that are built in the future are the so-called Standard Track, radio 36,50 m and consequently 84,39 m straights.
The distances of careers in straight, for outdoor competition, correspond to the respective categories, according to the following categories:
|RACES OUTDOORS - MEN
|Senior, promise, Junior||Youth||Cadet||Child||Fingerling||Baby|
|RELAY||4 X 100
4 X 400
|4 X 100
4 X 400
|4 X 100
4 X 300
|4 X 80||4 X 60||4 X 50|
|RACES OUTDOORS - WOMEN
|RELAY||4 X 100
4 X 400
|4 X 100
4 X 400
|4 X 100
4 X 400
|4 X 100
4 X 300
|4 X 80||4 X 60||4 X 50|
2 OUTER BANDS AND SECURITY
To facilitate the development of competition and security of athletes, bands will be reserved minimum unhindered spaces of 1.50 m minimum width in the sides of the track. The outer bands must be at the same level of external edges of the track and the drainage system located next to the kerb must be at the same level of the track.
3 HEIGHT OBSTÁCULOS FREE
The height between the pavement and the nearest obstacle (power lines in outdoor facilities; underside of roof, hang beam, luminaire, through air conditioning in covered facilities) both on the track as on the outer bands, should be totally free and have a minimum of 5 m.
SOLAR ORIENTACIÓN 4
The longitudinal axis of the straights of the athletics track must match the geographic address N-NO (exit), S-SE (arrival), with its variation within the period between environment and Not. It must take into account the winds not to run against them in the speed races.
TYPE OF FLOORING 5
The Track will be a pavement features normally different from their outer bands. The outdoor area should be completely flat, according to the evacuation superficial waters sideways slope a maximum of 1 per 100 inland longitudinal and another top (career direction) of 1 per 1,000. The pavement must have solved the drainage deep, as well as not being abrasive or slippery and elastic although endowed itself of security underfoot.
The pavement will be synthetic, prefabricated or “ in situ ”, on a basis of zahorras (sand and gravel) 15 cm thick minimum and two layers of asphalt agglomerated 40 mm (Arid Ømáx.: 20 mm) and 25 mm (Arid Ømáx.: 5 mm) thick minimum respectively.
Mark the following requirements under UNE 41958 IN “ sports Pavements ”:
|REQUIREMENTS FOR SPORTS PAVEMENT ATHLETICS TRACKS|
|50% ≥ VFG ≥ 35%||Competitions international and national Level|
|35% ≥ VFG ≥ 20%||Regional competitions, local, recreational, school|
|Deformation||≤ 3Mm StV|
|Friction||Μ ≤ 0.5|
|Planeidad||Differences in levels below 3 mm measured with rule of 3 m (1 / 1000)|
|Pending||Maximum 1:250 radial gradient|
|Resistance to impacts||Without fissures, cracks or deformations over 0.5 mm for impacts of 8 Nm|
|Resistance to nails *||Maximum weight loss 10%|
|Resistance to traction||Porous pavements: ≥ 400 kPa
Non porous pavements: ≥ 500 kPa
Elongation of breakage (Er): ≥ 40%
|Thickness||12 mm; track
20 mm; jump areas (boom, longitude, height, triple jump) of throwing spears and pit of the estuary
* Rules and the soles of the shoes heels may have up to a maximum of 11 nails. For synthetic pavement part of the nail that protrudes from the soles or heeled should not exceed 9 mm, except for leap of height and of throwing spears not exceeding 12 mm. The maximum diameter of the nails will be 4 mm In another type of pavements the maximum length of the nail is 25 mm diameter and the maximum 4 mm
If used pavements of transportable character (mats, rolls or synthetic rubber...), I apply all previous provisions regarding pending (taking the top side of the rolls) and the remaining characteristics.
Artificial lighting is uniform and so that does not cause glare of athletes, judges nor spectators. Mark the standard UNE-EN 12193 “ Illumination of sports facilities ” and will have the following minimum levels of illumination:
|LEVELS OF ILUMINACIÓN MÍNIMOS
ATHLETICS abroad (all activities)
|COMPETICIÓN LEVEL||Horizontal illuminance|
|And med (lux)||Uniformity
And min / Emed
|International and national competitions||500||0.7|
|Local and regional competitions, training high level||200||0.5|
|Training, school sport and recreation||100 (1)||0.5|
(1) Horizontal lighting can be reduced to 75 lux for racing.
Vertical lighting in the finishing line must be 1000 lux for video-finish team.
For TV broadcasts of color and recording movies requires a vertical illuminance levels of at least 1,000 lux and 1,400 lux in international competitions, however this value can increase with distance from the camera to the object. For more information regarding vertical illuminance, uniformity, color temperature and Performance index of color must consult the mentioned law.
7 ROUTE OF THE TRACK
The layout of the track will agree with paragraph 1 and as indicated below: The width of the lines will be 5 cm except the strokes of placing the fences that will be 1.5 cm in width.
The measurement of the perimeter of the track is on an imaginary line located 30 cm in the face outside of the kerb and 20 cm if the kerb is replaced by a line painted. Measuring the perimeter of the streets two hereafter is performed on an imaginary line located 20 cm from the edge outside of the “ line limit of the corridor ” above.
All lines are part of the surfaces that delimit except for the “ finish line ”, “ traces of the placement of the fences ” and “ prezona lines, ” “ lines of beginning of area ” and “ final lines ” area in the relay races. The color of the lines limit of corridors and lines of departure and arrival will be white, while marking lines and fences relay will be any other color to view the Real Spanish Federation of Athletics. The marking of lines on synthetic pavement should be perfectly acceded, be permanent, as well as enrasar with the surface.
The complete route can be specified the following details:
7a) Kerb: The edge or edge interior (the located at the left of the athlete who runs) will be provided with a kerb encintado or aluminium or other appropriate material, of approximately 5 cm in height and a minimum of 5 cm width, placed horizontally along its entire length. Only in this case, may be recognized Continental and World Record. The track should be limited outside of a concrete kerb or another suitable material, which will limit the box of the track (previous kerb) and the interior will move the channel of longitudinal drainage,
On the pavement synthetic lateral lines outline the interior and exterior and on the kerb establishing the details of marking plate through lasting character. if the kerb has to move temporarily for competitions, its location must be identified by a white line of 5 cm and a plastic cones or flags of 20 cm minimum height, placed at intervals not exceed 4 m.
7b) finish line: The finishing line of all distances to go chart perpendicular to the line or kerb interior. Is continuous, white of 5 cm width, will have its extremes in “ inner and outer lines ” and will be a length matching the width of the line. Each distance to travel will be measured including completes the “ starting line ” and excluding the thickness of the “ finish line ”. To help the alignment of Foto-Finish team and to facilitate the reading of the film of Video-Finish, the intersections of lines of the streets with the finishing line will be painted in black with proper design.
7c) limit Line aisle or street: The line limit for each corridor chart parallel to the kerb or line interior, at a distance determined by multiplying the number of streets which separates it from the kerb by the width of a street. Each participant in every race up to 400 m including, have an independent aisle throughout his career, a width of 1.22 m (± 0.01 (m), including the line of 5 cm wide located right in the direction of the race. On racing 4 x 200 and 4 x 400m will be crossed by streets a part of the race (See paragraph 7i) the rest for track free. In the race of 800 m in international competitions,
run the first curve by streets until the line of street free checked after the first curve. The free street line will be a curved line of 5 cm wide through the track, specified in each end by an emblem of at least 1.50 m located outside the track. To help identify free street athletes, can be put cones or small prisms basis 5 x 5 cm and 15 cm height of the same colour, the line of street free, placed at the intersection of lines of street and the free street. The remaining races over 800 m balancer entirely on track free.
7d) lines of output: The starting line of careers that is spent entirely on free track, will be curve and will cover the entire width of the track. Chart so that the gap between “ starting line ” and “ finish line ” is identical for each athlete, whatever their position in the starting line.
If the output is produced in curve, then have to have the same length bow 1T8 (tour in street 1) that the distances travelled in the remaining streets, still distances 22 ´, 33 ´, 44, ´...., 77 ´ and 88 ´, offsets obtained respectively by difference between the arc 1T8 (street 1) and the length of the polygon (+ straight arc), 2T2 + T2T8 (street 2), 3T3 + T3 T8 (street 3), 4T4 + T4 T8 (street 4),......., 7T7 + T7 T8 (calle 7) and 8 T8 (8 street).
The output of careers that played in whole or in part by streets, it will be a staggered line. Chart so that the gap between the “ starting line ” located on every street and the “ finish line ” is identical.
In these races made by streets will be calculated the “ starting line ” of each corridor taking into account the number of curves or / and the proper whose developments must compensate.
Curve compensation: every athlete runs on curve by a corridor whose development is a radio semicircunferencia different from the others. Must be offset these developments to match the distances to go for every athlete, as specified in the table below:
|LENGTH OF COMPENSATION OF A CURVE|
Straight offset: In those tests in which athletes van by its walkways up to a point at which go to the “ free ” track has done so-called compensation of straight. The start of the track always free is located at the end of a curve. to go all the same distance chart the “ free track line ” as indicated in the
The longitude traveled by the athlete of the street 1 and any other that runs until its meeting point in the tangent with the curve should be equal and its difference will be compensation. The magnitude of these offsets is a function of the street which runs and the length of the line of the track. For the track radio standard 36,50 m (Radius of measurement of track 36,80 m) and length of the line 84,39 m, the lengths of compensation are as shown in the following table:
|LENGTH OF COMPENSACION STRAIGHT – HINT ESTÁNDAR|
In the drawings ATLpt-6to, ATLpt-6b, ATLpt-6c, ATLpt-6d, ATLpt-6and, ATLpt-6fand ATLpt-6gare esquematizadas on a hint of 400 m rope “ exit ” lines staggered for testing of 800 m, 4 x 400m, 4 x 100 m, 400 m fences and 200 m whose offsets are reflected in the following table:
|OFFSETS IN RACES - STAGGERED DEPARTURES|
|800||4 x 100||400||400 v||4 x 400||200|
Output in groups: When there are more than 12 athletes in a race of 1,000 m, 2,000 m, 3,000 m, 5000 m and 10,000 m, they can be divided into two groups, with a group of 65% of athletes in the normal line exit curve and the other in another starting line different, also marked curve through half outside of the track. The second group has to run until the end of the 1st curve by half outside the track. The 2nd starting line must be located in such a way that all athletes at the same distance.
See figuresATLpt-4aandATLpt-4b. The line of street free to 800m indicated in 7c) indicates the location where the athletes in foreign group 2,000 m and 10,000 m can meet with athletes who used the normal output line. See figureATLpt 5.
Distances to mark: The distances to mark on the track, according to the Real Spanish Federation of Athletics, are the following:
|TYPE CAREER||DISTANCES TO MARK (m) INTERNATIONAL|
|SMOOTH||100, 200, 300, 400, 800, 1000, 1500, 2,000, 3,000, 5,000, 10,000, mile (1.609,35)|
|FENCES||100, 110, 400|
|RELAY||4 x 100, 4 x 400|
|TYPE CAREER||DISTANCES TO MARK (m) RFEA (children)|
|SMOOTH||50, 60, 80, 150|
|RELAY||4 x 60, 4 x 80, 4 x 300|
7e) braking Zone: beyond the “ finish line ” in the direction of career, there is an area where the corridor, once crossed the arrival, you can stop in a sufficient space. This Area may develop coinciding with the beginning of the curve.
7f) arrival Zone: to facilitate the vision of the arrival by spectators, journalists and judges, is optional, the route in the last 5 m career of a “ grid ” of arrival consisting of a series of parallel lines to the “ finish line ” can be drawn separate continuous five lines 1 m among themselves and with the arrival or four lines (three continuous and a discontinuous) separated 5, 3, 2 and 1m arrival. The streets can be marked with numbers of a minimum height of 0.50 m read in the direction of the race.
7, g) the line integrated into the hint: The line will be integrated in the track of 400 m, will contain an exit area of 3 m and a braking zone of a minimum of 17 m after the finish line.
To preserve the street interior of the track, it is recommended that the line has a street more than the track in ring.
7h) Strokes of placing fences: Will outline perpendicular to the “ lines ” aisle limit the strokes indicating the placement of the fences for the different categories. These strokes have 1.5 cm in width and sobresaldrán on both sides of each line “ limit ” aisle a length of 10 cm. The exact distance to which will be placed every fence, will be determined by the edge of the stroke located close to “ starting line ”. Each age category has established a distance of particular race, as well as The number of fences to move, its height and intermediate distances possible; this can be found in the following categories:
|FENCES RACING OUTDOORS - MEN|
|FENCES RACING OUTDOORS - WOMEN|
An outline set of the placement of the fences at a distance of 400 m, is located in the drawing
7i) relay Areas: relay Areas OR areas of transfer of the witness, are the spaces within which must be transferred compulsorily the witness of a corridor to another.
Outline lines of 5 cm width via the track to indicate the relay area and the central line. Each area of transfer of the witness shall be 20 m length in which the central line will be the center. Areas of transfers will begin and end on the edges of the lines of area closest to the starting line in the direction of the race. The main thrusts areas of the witness transfer of the first 4x400 metres relay (or second of 4x200 m) are the same as output lines for the test of 800 m.
Transfer areas of the witness for the second and final relay (4x400 m) will be limited by lines drawn to 10 m on each side of the starting line / target.
The arc through the entry of the line opposite the goal, which points to the location allows the seconds corridors of each equipment (4x400 m) and third parties corridors (4x200 m) leave their respective streets, will be the same as for the career of 800 m.
The relay race of x and whenever possible, the 4x200 m would run entirely by streets. In racing 4x200 relay m (if this evidence was not run entirely by streets) and 4x400 m, the first round, as well as part of the second round until the line located after the first curve (free street line), there is also entirely by streets.
Racing in the 4x200 relay m and 4x400 that do not compete over four teams, it is recommended that are run by individual streets only the first curve of the first round.
In x races and 4x200 m athletes from a team, except the first corridor, can begin to run from a distance not exceeding 10 m (prezona) before the transfer area. Chart a trademark different from the usual in each street to indicate the limit of this extension.
In the first transmission of witness in the 4x400 metres relay that occurs staying athletes in its streets, the second runner cannot begin to run outside their area of transfer, but must leave within their area. Similarly, the third and fourth athletes have to begin to run also within the area of transfer.
The seconds athletes from each team can get away from their streets immediately after passing the line located after the first curve (free street line) that will be marked by a curved line 5 cm width via the track and which will be identified by a banner placed on each side of the track and with a height, at least, 1.50 m.
To help athletes to identify the line of the street free, can be placed small or cones prisms (5 x 5 cm) of a maximum height of 15 cm and the same color as the line of free street intersections of the line of every street line and the street free.
8 THE POLES OF ARRIVAL
Specify the extremities of the finish line. construction Will rigid, white, being situated at least 30 cm out of each end of the line.
Measured approximately 1,40 m in height, 8 cm in width and 2 cm thick. Its use should not interfere, in its case, with the team of foto-finish.
The setting to the soil should preferably be through an anchor tube with cap of the depth of Docking to provide the rigidity of the appropriate pole.
Unless the arbitrator judge will be counterproductive, because of the direction and the wind speed, it will build a woollen thread through the track between the two poles of arrival and subject to them, to 1.22 m above the ground, with the aim of helping the classification of participants. Will be exactly above the edge of the finish line closest to the exit
9 EXIT TACOS
Exit bruskah devices used by brokers for departures on the evidence of speed. At all races up to 400 m including (including the 1ª posta 4 x 200 and 4 x 400) are compulsory exit wads.
Exit bruskah may be private property or supplied by the organizer of competitions or owner of facilities, according to the cases. In any case, should be constitution absolutely rigid and without providing any irregular advantage both the competitor, as inconvenience to the remaining corridors. Tacos should be able to withdraw quickly and easily from the pavement to which will be nailed by a number of specific tips, so that cause as little harm as possible; both this number as the length and thickness of these tips depend on the type of pavement of the track. In anchor may not allow any movement during the output.
If the tacos are provided by the organizers must meet the following provisions: be constituted by two plates against which the athlete's foot support in the position of departure. These plates are mounted on a rigid structure which should not impede the athlete tacos when it stops in the output. The plates may have an adjustable tilt and be flat or slightly concave career sense. The surface of these plates must be prepared to accommodate the nails of the athlete's shoes, either with slots or cracks in surfaces in that is placed on foot or covering that with an appropriate material which allows the use of shoes with spikes. Athletes competitors in World championships, Olympic Games, drinks of the world Championships of Area, games of Area, Area Cups, encounters between two or more National Federations may use only the tacos provided by the organizers.
In world championships, Olympic Games, drinks of the world Championships of Area, Area games, glasses of Area, exit bruskah must be connected to a device that detects the exits false. The examining exits and / or an attachment should bring headphones that allows you to clearly hear an audible signal from the control apparatus whenever detects an exit false (for example when the reaction time is less than 100 / 1000 second) to confirm that athlete / s is / are responsible / s of the output false. This system must have been approved by the IAAF (International Association of Athletics Federations) or by the Real Spanish Federation of Athletics.
It is recommended that the device detection of false output is used in any competition.
The fences are the obstacles that must cross the athlete in specialties called this way. The number of them, their height and placement in the track is indicated in tables of subparagraph 7h).
The fence shall be composed of the following elements:
- The basis of metal or another suitable material, protected from corrosion or non-corrosive consisting of two parallel tubes in the direction of the race, maximum length 70 cm and one transverse joining the extremes of the previous ones.
- Two vertical uprights, also of metal or another suitable material, protected from corrosion or non-corrosive, united to extremes already cited the tubes roots and scalable height, depending on the category dispute.
- A higher mischievous, wood or another suitable material, painted in black and white or in other colors that contrast so that the white stripes or clearer have at least 22.5 cm wide left at the ends. This mischievous have a length of 118 to 120 cm, a width of 7 cm, and a thick between 1 and 2.5 cm.
Will be firmly subject in their limbs to the vertical uprights and its outer edges will be rounded. It supports a tolerance of ± 3 mm in the regulatory heights to bridge differences or variations of construction.
The fences will be placed on the track so that your feet or bases are on the side by the approaching competitors and will be placed so that the edge of the nearest transom made in the corridor approaching matches the mark on the nearest track the athlete. Its total mass may not be less than 10 kg. To overturn it will exercise in the center of the upper edge minimum force 3.6 kg-fuerza and maximum 4 kg-fuerza. Adapted to the two tubes two balances scalable database, to maintain this magnitude of drive in all categories. To verify the resistance force of the fences, you can use a balance with springs applying traction in the center of the top bar. Also may use a rope with a hook, which set to the top bar, at its midpoint, will go through a pulley located properly and will load weight.
Record to certify global, continental and national, shall be used a game full fences that meets these specifications.
Witnesses are some small cylinders broadcast runners in the relay races. Will Be smooth, voids, of circular section, made of wood, metal (aluminium) or any other material rigid (plastic), a single piece, painted bright color which can easily be during the race. Will be manufactured in one piece, a length of 30 cm and a maximum of 28 cm minimum.
Have a circle between 12 and 13 cm and a mass of not less than 50 g.
12 LADDERS OF JUDGES AND CRONOMETRADORES
Reserves outside the side strips the space required for the situation of ladders where they are planted judges of arrival and the cronometradotes. The stairs are distributed with its central axis coinciding with the finishing line, in its extension and at least 5 m on each side of the kerb or lateral line. The judges of arrival moves all within or outside and always cronometradotes outside the track.
13 DIMENSIONAL VERIFICACIÓN
Dimensional verification required for obtaining the certificate of approval and so that they can hold competitions and official records in an athletics track, implies that are implemented in the outer edge of the internal kerb track the following 28 Control points
1. Verification of the length of each of the straights with a maximum deviation ± 0.005 m (84,39 m ± 0.005 m on standard track): 2 measurements
2. Verification of radius of each semicircunferencias including the kerb (36,50 m ± 0.005 m on standard track): 24 measurements
3. Alignment of the kerb of each of the straights with a deviation not exceeding 0.01 m: 2 measurements.
The sum of the average measurements of the two semicircunferencias and the two straights not exceed + 0.04 m, or less than 0,00 m; 400 m (+ 0.04 m / - 0.00 (m)
The measurement will be done with a steel band calibrated and certified or a scientific apparatus of measurement, failing that can be used tapes of fibreglass. This dimensional control is also the basis of the route of the kerb dimensional accuracy of which depends on the accuracy of all the tagging wildlife.
It is desirable that are permanently fixed centres of the two semicircles for the construction and verification of the 28 control points, through stainless steel tube or metallic non-corrosive, embedded in the ground so that it is fixed and invariant enough and may hide beneath the surface finished 0.15 m.
14 TÉCNICO TEAM
14th) Anemometer: on the evidence of 200 m will take into account the wind speed. In a race must provide the existence of a measuring device that speed (anemometer) that will be placed in the midpoint of the line (50 m from the arrival), to a maximum of 2 m separation from the kerb (street No 1) and placed at a height of approximately 1.22 m. The registration of anemometer will be done in meters per second and must be certified by a competent authority. It provides for the existence of an additional table and chair for the appropriate anemometer fired annotations.
14b) The Output: At all races, the judge of departures should count them through a gun shot or similar device, using a microphone to transmit their orders through loudspeakers that participants are located in each street. Alternatively, if not can use this address system, make the shot and about the same distance of each athlete. If the Judge cannot be placed in that position, if it should be the gun or device used, with the shot by electrical contact.
14c) and Timekeeping Foto-Finish: Should be used a system of electronic timekeeping fully automatic in national and international competitions. The system used must be approved by the Real Federation athletics Española.. The system should be fully automatic, when it is launched by contact with the judge's pistol exits at the time of the lightning of the explosion and when times and positions of participants can viewing the hundredth of a second on a film in movement or photograph (fotofinish).
Can be used a system of video recording that meets the above features, which uses a video camera aligned with the finishing line, which occurs at least 50 frames per second and may contain a timekeeping device that produces a 1 / 50 of a second. Should reflect pipelines tubes buried by section enough for connecting cables teams and timekeeping data process, with its manholes which, as well as to the power of these appliances, so that it is not necessary to place surface cables on the runway.
14d) Device file of turns: Will be a device file laps in the vicinity of the finish line to inform each participant laps still has to go. This device may be of mechanical drive, electrical or electronic. Likewise indicating the comienzote the latest round, sounding a bell or other acoustic system.
15 BÁSICA BIBLIOGRAPHY
- Rules of Competition (International Association of Athletics Federations, IAAF; Royal Spanish Federation of Athletics RFEA)
- Manual of athletics facilities (IAAF)
- Homologation of installations (RFEA)
- Rules UNE-EN Sporting Pavements
- Rules UNE-EN Sportsequipment
- Rules UNE-EN sports facilities Lighting